Should migrant workers’ dormitory operators and employers be legally responsible for the spike in COVID-19 cases in Singapore?

Should migrant workers’ dormitory operators and employers be legally responsible for the spike in COVID-19 cases in Singapore?

In better times, migrant workers have always been the frontline workers of Singapore for decades, mostly remaining unacknowledged and under-appreciated. It’s truly unfortunate that it is only during this COVID-19 period and the spiking of COVID-19 cases among them that they are placed in the “limelight”.

While our government and the relevant agencies upped their efforts and measures to contain the rapid spread of Coronavirus among these migrant workers, most of us as Singaporeans are genuinely worried and aggrieved over the spiking of COVID-19 in the migrant workers’ dormitories. An outcry of spontaneous compassion continues as even more voluntary welfare groups and individuals started to extend their assistance to these dormitories.

However, it’s hard to ignore the undertone of resentment fueling this outcry at the same time.

Regardless of the many differences in opinion on the spiking of COVID-19 cases in our migrant workers’ dormitories, it’s safe to say that most of us agree that we have “dropped the ball” on our migrant workers” – it could have been prevented. While there is a huge outcry of sentiments against our government and relevant agencies on their belated measures for migrant workers here in Singapore, I would humbly beg to differ.

I believe that there are 4 key parts we need to examine in order for a more holistic examination of the current issue at hand, namely:

1) Government/Inter-nation Policies and agreements;
2)Government Agencies;
3)Employers and Dormitory Owners ; and
4)Employees/Foreign workers.

We need to recognise that these migrant labour policies are consensually signed between two countries for mutual benefits of both countries. In turn, these policies are enforced by the relevant government agencies which license and authorise private operators and employers who are able to abide by these policies (and with the operational capabilities) to hire these foreign workers and house them appropriately. So if we clear ourselves of our emotions, and see objectively the responsibilities from the government, to government agencies to employers, and private operators to dormitory residents, it might help us to set things into perspective.

Let me elaborate on each of the 4 key parts. First, as mentioned, these migrant worker policies are mutually signed between two countries. And before anyone puts his/her signature on any contracts, everyone’s focus is on the “F” word – fair. If a policy or a contract is not fair, no one will put their signature on it. After all, how is it possible that Singapore can intimidate our neighbouring countries into signing biased policies that favour only u?. It’s not wrong to say that Singapore and the other countries which have foreign labour policies with us, consensually agreed to enter these policies for the mutual benefits of both countries.

While most can argue that there are simply too many foreign workers in Singapore, we also need to acknowledge that we have a greater need for them to assist Singapore in our dynamic and rapid growth.

Case in point – There are always new scheduled BTO (Build-To-Order – source) HDB flats throughout the year in different parts of Singapore. We have about 58 hospitals (public and private collectively – source) throughout Singapore and more than 12,000 F&B (food and beverage – source) outlets and hundreds of thousands of families which need additional support from FDWs (Foreign Domestic Worker – source). If we were to highlight only these four main sectors which these foreign workers are deployed, it’s not hard to understand why we need to have foreign labor policies with other countries.

While it’s true that the topic we should be focusing on is the issue of COVID-19 spiking in dormitories, not all of us can deny the fact that often these two factors are simply “rojaked” into one simple sentence – “It’s spiking because there are too many foreign workers in Singapore”, thus it’s important that we again seperate these two entangled points of argument, in order for us to see from a clearer and unprejudiced perspective.

Moving on to the relevant government agencies’ roles in the dormitories’ outbreak of Coronavirus. What most of us would most probably unanimously agree, is that the RELEVANT government agencies are in charge of enforcing the terms of these policies on private establishments and companies which employ, and also in this case, provide lodging for the foreign workers.

The relevant government agencies would have set in place stringent regulations and obligations to would-be-employers (including dormitory operators in this case), to make sure that these employers (& operators) have the means and capability to fulfill these regulations before even awarding them with the permits and licenses to employ and/or operate any dormitory. Just like any one of us registering a new business entity in Singapore, we too, are required by law to fulfill all the regulations from MOM (Ministry of Manpower), ACRA (Accounting and Corporate Regulatory Authority), etc.

We can all agree that these guidelines are there to ensure a minimum standard in the living conditions for the foreigners. One needs to be ready to undertake all the responsibilities and fulfillment of these regulations to be able to successfully apply for the permit to operate these dormitories.

While we are not sure how often are the scheduled or regular inspections from these government agencies conducted on the premises of these dormitories, it is nevertheless understood that by undersigning a permit to operate these dormitories, it is a pledge between private operators and the government agencies to make sure that the interest, security, benefit and welfare of the dormitory residents are and must always be safeguarded by these operators and employers – these are mandatory.

So if we cast our argument further, then the recent government interventions are only because of what was done poorly or not put in place by the private owners and operators.

Thus, it might not be right to say that the relevant government agencies should be totally responsible for the spiking of COVID-19 in dormitories. Granted, one can still argue that the government agencies should have had better foresight and preempted this dreadful scenario ahead of the private operators and owners of these dormitories. Despite the efforts and measures these governing agencies are extensively putting into place now, all they have done is to vulnerably placed themselves as the scapegoat for public crucification.

Now, as responsible private business owners, we are required to fulfill the terms and conditions of MOM, ACRA, WSHC (Workplace Safety and Health Council), FSD (Fire Safety Department – SCDF) and etc.

In short, when anyone registers a new private commercial entity in ACRA, they already undertook the responsibilities and regulations from all these government agencies, whether one thoroughly read through all these terms from all the different agencies or not. MOM won’t be calling up any employer for an interview unless a formal complaint has been filed against them. Similarly, no employer would want FSD to be doing premise inspection in their commercial premises every other week.

Just like any other ACRA registered establishment or company, dormitory owners and operators are commercial businesses providing services and lodging for foreign workers. The dormitory lodgings provided are not free but borne either by the foreign workers or the employers (about SGD $250 per month – source). Thus similar to any legit commercialised transaction, there is the need to balance monetary gain and quality service. Ensuring that these dormitories are fit to stay in, is not only the operators and owners’ responsibility, it is also the employers’ responsibility (source). Even without the SCDF fire department and other relevant agencies knocking on all dormitories’ doors unannounced and doing random spot checks on the premises, it has always been mandatory for dormitory operators and employers to make sure that these foreign workers are living in approved environment as per the guidelines defined by relevant governing agencies.

While information on regulations involving these dormitories are clearly listed on all the relevant government agencies’ websites, we can’t say for certain that all of these dormitories are operating stringently per these regulations. This might have presented a grey zone which might also be the cause of the spiking of COVID-19 in these dormitories. Without proper and transparent documentation of their practices, dormitory operators and employers of these foreign workers place themselves in the firing line of this dreadful situation in the dormitories.

Last but not the least, due-responsibility and due-diligence from employees (in this case, dormitory residents) are required in the course of their employment (residency in this case) ,to ensure that the “F” word (fairness), can be put in place to complete this full contractual cycle.

It’s been identified that the spiking of COVID-19 cases are especially alarming in regards to particularly two groups of workers (Bangladeshi and Indian – source) which make up the majority of the COVID-19 cases in the foreign workers group, with the cases from the other nationalities of foreign workers remaining low and containable. To be fair, we need to look at why specifically it’s harder to contain the spiking of COVID-19 within these two particular groups. Without any intention to discriminate, it’s arguable that their deeply-rooted cultural habits also played a major part as the hidden reservoir for COVID-19 cases. These actions or behaviour may not be an issue in normal times, but is certainly a cause for concern during this period, whereby human contact has been identified as one of the main source of transmission of the virus.

With each passing day of our “Circuit Breaker” and the continued rapid spiking of COVID-19 in these dormitories, it’s hard to argue that there isn’t any public resentment of our government. It may seem a general principle that any government of any other country should be held responsible for such oversights during a crisis, but if we start to clarify the roles and responsibilities from government to government agencies to business owners to dormitory operators and to employees, we might be able to have a more equal platform for inquiry.

For all the different parties involved in this, the top priority remains the same – to deal with the COVID-19 situation in dormitories first, without letting emotions affect and hinder us further.

However, it is also equally important that we must publicly address these issues when we have finally defeated the COVID-19 virus. While most of us are not really prepared for this level of pandemic in this modern time, we need to acknowledge that certain standards and general protocols should have been proactively engaged all the time, even without the virus. Thus, it’s important that we know where and what went wrong, and who should be standing in front of an open inquiry should (or if) we eventually conduct one, because, ultimately:

To Err is human
To Forgive is divine
But we should not forget, so that we will not find ourselves caught up in the same situation ever again.

Written by : Mike Koh
Edited by : Huang Yushan / Ling Weiming
Published on : 29/04/2020
Image : Source /

What’s happening in the dormitories? What are we doing and is it enough?

What’s happening in the dormitories? What are we doing and is it enough?

First of all, an apology to our readers that it took us so long to put up this article, there were a lot of private requests for us to touch on the dormitory issues. It’s a very important issue to all of us here in Singapore, but it’s also a very sensitive issue, especially now. We sat on our writer’s block for a long time on how we can write this article without being bias and most importantly, not to stir up the already presence of anger and sadness among the people and at the same time clearly bringing to the public’s awareness and understanding of this distress from different points.

Firstly, there are already a lot of articles out there regarding the high spike rate of Covid-19 cases in these dormitories and most of these articles are written (or questioned) with political agenda and politically-biased. Secondly, there are a lot of humanity organisations also publishing their articles questioning how much (or how little) assistance are granted to these foreign workers during this moment. Third and lastly, no one feels good reading any articles which shows social inequality and are bond to be angered or sadden by these articles in a way or another. Thus, while the topics on dormitories might be the most engaging topic for now, but it’s also one of those very challenging topic for any socially-responsible writer to pen.

While many argued that the living environment of these foreigners should have been emphasized and dealt with in the earliest moment, but what’s the point of establishing who’s right or who’s wrong especially when it already happened. The most important issue at hand is how to deal with it, shouting over the megaphone with “I already told you so” is not going to be of any help. While most of us might not be able to extend any real “physical” help out there in the dormitories now, we hope that our article can shed some light from different perspectives.

While most of us are affected by the high spike rate in dormitories and might be barking at the wrong tree, blaming or questioning what the relevant authorities and our government are doing for these foreginers now. But we need to acknowledge that most of us are not channeling our questions to the right people who should be really responsive and responsible for this incident. This is not an issue where we can go “solo” and be “hero”, Covid-19 is bigger than anything we have seen during our time. We need to work hand-in-hand with the right people and right assistance to get all of us through this.

When two countries agree on a “foreign labour” policy, both are willing parties and both seek causes and clauses for mutual benefits and also the well being of their countries. Thus during such crisis, both countries involved should be extending their assistance to these foreigners in Singapore now. As much as our government and all the relevant agencies are trying to do the best for this community now, countries’ embassy should remain open to assist their people. A quick check with these embassies revealed that some of these embassies are closed for now (most of them plainly stated as “complying to Singapore’s Government’s “Circuit Breaker” as a reason for their closure).

If an embassy can stay closed during crisis time, then it’s not fit to be an embassy representing it’s people in another country. This shows who is doing a bad job but taking up responsibility, and who’s not doing any job by simply running away from responsibility. In fact, embassies should be extending their operation hours now to assist their people through this bad patch together with Singaporeans.

To assist Singapore in our fast-paced and population-declining society, we have included “foreign labor” policies since decades back, so this is not a new policy of recent time, this has been our existing policy for a long time. Covid-19 did not spiked up because these foreigners, Covid-19 spiked up in dormitory cluster because of cultural behaviours, lack of awareness and urgency, and living conditions.

We need to understand that although these policies, were initiated by the government of these countries, the ground work, deployment and engagement of these foreigners are undertaken by private companies and establishments. So it’s not wrong to say that now in the dormitories’ case, these private dormitory’s operators should be responsible for ignoring and failing to preamplify this very possible scenario of high infestation of Covid-19 in these dormitories. Welfare, attention and awareness should have been placed as first priority of these operaters before it even worsen to this current state.

Now that these authorities have stepped in and doing what they can do, these authories and agencies became the figure-head for criticisms and blaming. While most of us can’t be there in the frontline helping these foreigners, as a civilized person, we should spare our criticisms (at least for a better time later) and let these frontline people perform their duties wholly without any more emotional blamings. Regardlessly, these private operators need be held responsible for this outbreak in dormitories. Period.

Most of us would have noticed the number of Filipinos hanging out in Lucky Plaza started to decrease even before the “Circuit Breaker” came in place, same likewise for the Myanmar crowd in Penisula Plaza and other foreigners’ favourite meeting grounds. But unfortunately, Little India remains that crowded and populated even up to the last day just before “Circuit Breaker”.

We need to understand that although there are newly contracted foreign domestic workers among these Filipinos and Myanmars, most of them have served several contracts here in Singapore before or these new ones are also socially connected to those who have served longer terms. Information and updates reach them faster and more efficiently. And being a domestic helper, they are more connected to information and sources from the families they are working in as well. Thus one almost see a very effective and efficient self-imposed social distancing measures undertaken by these domestic helpers, vacating their favourite haunts at the drop of the pin.

Comparing to the Filipinos and Myanmars, majority of these Indian foreign workers are mostly on single term employment and new, thus their information arrives later than those compared to Filipinos and Myanmars. As commonly seen, their cultural gestures and behaviours also engaged them in a much closer physical proximity than others. Thus specifically, this group became one of the prime target to Covid-19, not because of race or dormitories, but because of age long cultural gestures and behaviours. While these behaviors are not to be discriminated, we also need to acknowledge that these behaviours is one of the main reason which led to a spike up in transmission of Covid-19 among this particular foreign worker group in Singapore.

For those who have studied abroad or worked abroad for long time, we would have some connection and engagement to certain clubs or associations or groups related to Singapore. Simply for a Sense of Countryhood and Belonging while faraway in another Foreign Country. Similarly, it’s not hard to understand and accept these foreigners hanging out in their favourite huants, for they too are seeking their sense of countryhood and belonging while away from home. But unfortunately, for the very same reason that anyone of us (regardless of races) desired to stay connected to a “home” group, Covid-19 also used this to quickly infiltrate into this particular group.

Recent footages from social media which show law enforcers in India using canes on citizens in public may have shocked most of us in Singapore. Yet, we have also seen footages of people arguing with the authorities, and simply refusing to listen to instructions. Whether these behaviour warrants a canning is an entirely different debate. However, what these citizens are doing is surely making public servants job even more strenuous, especially in a critical period such as this.

On the contrary, the police in Singapore usually aim to settle the matter verbally, and force is only applied when physical threats to the officer, the public, or even the offender himself, are present. This has perhaps misled foreigners, especially those where harsh physical punishments are liberally applied, to think that law enforcement measures are soft in Singapore, and can be brushed over easily. As such, warnings by our officers are ignored and these groups will simply find another location to gather, flouting the guidelines for social distancing.

Covid-19 did not started initially from these dormitories, but were transmitted and carried around and further carried into these dormitories, we need to understand that Covid-19 infestation in this group spiked to such a great and rapid number due to many reasons. Regardless of whatever underlying reasons which the authorities have yet to investigate, it’s pressing to do what must be done first for the welfare and safety of these foreigners.

Written by : Mike Koh
Edited by : Huang Yushan / Ling Weiming
Published on : 17/04/2020
Image : Source / Taiga Ishii –

Is this the effect Dementors have?

Is this the effect Dementors have?

We’ve just passed two weeks of staying at home for Circuit Breaker measures.

And it has taken its toll on many people, the young and the old alike.

A general mood of dark despair of varying degrees has taken over – like how I imagine a swarm of dementors looming over our usually bright sunny island of Singapore would be, sucking the joy and hope out of everyone.

Staying at home was at first something we all loved and looked forward to every weekend. What happened then? Why has this period been so rough for almost everyone?

Turns out, Dr. Sheldon Cooper is not the only one who dislikes change. Change of any kind, especially on a national CB magnitude, is not easy. All pop culture reference aside, the constant deluge of news (both real and amplified) about the COVID-19 cases and death rates has an intangibly huge negative impact on all of us.

Throw in the frustration of trying to balance your child’s home-based learning needs with your own work from home tech issues and you’ve got a real pickle on your hands. And you can’t even escape for an hour to have a stress-relief venting with your best friend over a cup of coffee at the nearest cafe.

For some, this intangible sense of anxiety and fear is coupled by real worries of losing their jobs, and being unable to support their families. And many more worried for their friends and loved ones’ safety as they fight at the frontlines to battle COVID-19.

There is also an evolutionary reason why we are more down at this moment. It’s known as the Negativity Bias. Psychologists theorise that humans are more prone to remember or imprint negative events, experiences and news more quickly because we’ve inherited the genes that predispose us to give special attention to those negative aspects of our environments that could be harmful to us. In this way, dwelling on the “bad stuff” is similar to the sensation of pain–it’s our bodies way of keeping us safe. These negative events and experiences also tend to linger longer than positive ones, and this is what is known as the negativity bias.

We are thus more likely to dwell on the alarming news rather than the positive ones during this COVID-19 pandemic. What positive news, you ask? See, there’s that negativity bias at work. In fact, this pandemic has brought out alot of good that is lost amidst the ongoing spike in numbers world-wide. Like how individuals, corporations and governments are all doing their part, and uniting to fight the pandemic, ongoing acts of kindness among strangers, neighbours and friends checking in on each other, volunteers continuing to deliver food to the needy, and world governments coordinating preventive measures with a degree of cooperation that’s not seen before. Israelis and Palestinians are uniting in a joint effort to contain COVID-19.

How about this Instagram page which shows medical staff wearing photos of themselves to make them less scary and intimidating.

It’s been a dark period, and we are looking at more bad news ahead in the upcoming days. And while on some days, it may be next to impossible to find the positive in life, now is the time for us to be kinder to others and also to ourselves, to learn to celebrate small victories and understand that there will be days of back-sliding which is part of the learning and growth process. Perhaps that’s how we can all produce that Patronus charm that can protect us from this dark period ahead.

Written & Edited by : Huang Yushan
Published on : 17/04/2020
Image : Source/Willgard Krause – Pixabay
Source / Robertino Rodriguez – Instagram

“Circuit Breaker” : Are we braking Covid-19 or breaking under it?

“Circuit Breaker” : Are we braking COVID-19 or breaking under it? Why the number of COVID-19 infections are spiking so rapidly even when we are already in a “Circuit Breaker”?

Most of us would have noticed that during this period of “Circuit Breaker”, there are sudden, alarming spikes in the number of COVID-19 cases. Amidst this rising statistic, there are also fake amplified stats of COVID-19 cases from private WhatsApp and other message groups. One might question : is the “Circuit Breaker” working? Or is it breaking? Why are the numbers of COVID-19 infections still spiking so rapidly even when we are already in a “Circuit Breaker”?

Reason One : “Circuit Breaker” is not a cure for COVID-19.

As researchers work tirelessly on finding more treatments and vaccines for Covid 19 (which might take months), “Circuit Breaker” is the ONLY intervention available to help individuals stay healthy, to break the chain of transmission, and also to allow more vulnerable populations (or COVID-19 identified clusters) a fighting chance of surviving this pandemic.

Reason Two : It takes time for the “Circuit Breaker” to contain COVID-19.

Research has shown us that while COVID-19 virus spreads easily and quickly (via close contact) from one person to another, the incubation period of this virus varies from person to person, with some showing symptoms within 3 days and others as long as 3 weeks. Some research also shows a majority of infections are mild or even asymptomatic. Thus it’s very possible that someone who has already been infected with COVID-19 may be carrying and transmitting this virus to others unknowingly until the virus becomes full blown.

Remember this : You are not just isolating yourselves from COVID-19, you are also assisting those in the identified cluster with a better fighting chance to survive this pandemic.

One of our earliest COVID-19 identified clusters is The Life Church and Missions (of Singapore), which can be traced from the initially identified case of Singapore’s COVID-19 Case 8th and Case 9th and to Case 90th (belonging to a sub-cluster of this cluster and the first fatality of COVID-19 in Singapore). From all these official records, it is easy to understand that the incubation period of this virus varies from people to people (source).

Reason Three : Individuals and groups not taking this “Circuit Breaker” seriously enough.

Fools – period.

True and false. While certainly there are some “covidiots” out there still having a ball of their time, there are also people out there who are really in need of help and ought to be spared from any tongue lashings. We have seen cases of elderly people still loitering outside alone during this “Circuit Breaker” period, some of these stayed alone and they felt safer to be out there in the open then to stay alone at home. There are people out there with depression and anxiety, these people need help and what we can do is not to publicly shame them and call them names.

We might not be able to comprehend what these people are going through and why they are out there loitering about, but without understanding their actual plight, it’s not kind for us to go labeling them as such and posting them virally to friends.

It’s important to study the statistics from other countries which have also issued different degrees of social distancing measures. These countries are also experiencing irregular spikes in their numbers of infection. These statistics should never be taken in a “matter-of-fact” manner, but more as an understanding that most of countries and people are yet to be readied for such a pandemic.

We should be concerned that the number of COVID-19 patients are spiking. At the same time, we should also understand that although as a country, we have gone through other crisis together before and pulled out of it mostly intact and well, COVID-19 is a pandemic no one is prepared for and everyone is learning as much and trying to deal with it as much as well. During this period of spiking, it’s not a time to question whether the “Circuit Breaker” is working, it’s not a time to lose our faith in the system due to the spiking, it’s not the time to blame or shame others, but it’s a time to show again how as a united nation, we can stand together as one in one of the hardest times.

Written by : Mike Koh
Edited by : Huang Yushan / Ling Weiming
Published on : 15/04/2020
Image : Source / Shutterstock

Why we should be prepared to extend our Covid 19’s “Circuit Breaker” even longer

Why we should be prepared to extend our Covid 19’s “Circuit Breaker” even longer

Whether is it a “Shut Down”, “Lock Down” or “Circuit Breaker” (in Singapore’s case), these terms in any other names mean the same thing : extreme social distancing measures, and it only serves one important purpose : to contain Covid 19 as much as possible. Covid 19 first started in Wuhan, China around late October 2019 and identified as an epidemic in December 2019 as China started progressively to “lock down” the other surrounding cities of Hubei by January 2020.

Since 23rd January 2020, different cities of Hubei were ordered into different levels of social distancing measures before all these were lifted on 8th April 2020, a total duration of 77 days. Since then, most of the countries which entered a “lock down” status have yet to annouce any affirmative dates when these orders will be lifted.

Our neighbouring country, Malaysia, issued their first “lock down” order on 14th March 2020 for a 2 week period before extending it for another 2 weeks until 14th April 2020 and now it’s extended for the third time for another 2 weeks until 28th April 2020 (which might again be extended). On 7th April 2020, Singapore started an almost month long “Circuit Breaker” period from 7th April – 4th May 2020. While some countries are adopting a more enforced approach on “lock down” orders, there are other countries like UK and India which have decisively extended their “lock down” duration.

If we compare Singapore with Hubei, while the number of cases, population and area are much smaller, the population density in Singapore is over 30 times more dense than Hubei. Singapore is, afterall, the third most densely populated country in the world, and that puts us comparatively at much greater propensity and risk for faster and more widespread contagion.

One may question this. Especially when you consider the size of Singapore, the relative ease of implementation, and also, the relatively lower number of those infected, it is easy to think that by 4th May, we should have “flattened the curve”.

But a sword is always double-edged. Our small size makes us highly compact, and it also means we are all staying in much higher proximity with one another, and easier for virus to spread. One can expect the situation to have to worsen first before it can get better. We should therefore, be prepared for the likelihood of an extended period of “lock-down” in Singapore.

We need to understand that each and every day, the situation of Covid 19 are closely monitored by relevant government agencies, and there might be urgent (or out-dated) orders which need to be complied immediately to curb the spread of this virus. And when it’s necessary to extend or “re-enforce” (with more orders) our “Circuit Breaker”, as a responsible person and citizen, we need to do our part well to know how important this “Circuit Breaker” is for the well being of our whole nation.

Written by : Mike Koh
Edited by : Huang Yushan / Ling Weiming
Published on : 14/04/2020
Image : Source / Photo by Samuel Zeller / Unsplash

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In the past few years, technology seems to have taken the driving seat of the economy, which leads to many students in other majors especially those with social science degrees reflecting the usefulness of what they have learned and how they can navigate in such a world shifting its focus on technology? Some people begin to worry that prospective students might choose to study science rather than social science for sake of a better job opportunity.

Member of Parliament Sun Xue ling in a speech expressed her opinion on this issue, saying that the technology itself is cold without feeling and without  sense of right or wrong. For example, the nuclear power can either be used to generate energy to benefit people or result in the outbreak of a war. Therefore, social science students of today with an understanding of the human condition have an important role to play in supervising the application of technology correctly.

In fact, the corny joke about social science graduates working in McDonald’s is a misguidance. The HESA institution investigates the quite common stereotype that a social science degree is less wanted in the labor market than a science degree.  And the final report proved this stereotype was wrong and the courses provided by those higher education institutions are helpful for job seeking.

According to the HESA data, social science graduates are more likely to get paid employment than science graduates and be promoted to managerial or senior positions. The research followed the three and a half years career paths of over 62,000 university students after they graduated from university in 2009. The figures revealed that about 84.2% of social science graduates find  three years after graduation, compared with 78% of students graduated with science degrees.

As a social science graduate myself, I find there are many options and opportunities out there, such as careers in government departments, trade unions, NGOs, international institutions and think tanks, also careers in companies such as human resources management and public relations, advertising and marketing. The courses of social science usually train students’ skills of researching, analyzing, presenting and writing, as well as interpersonal skills and teamwork spirit, which are always much valued by bosses.

Having a degree in social science doesn’t necessarily mean that these people will change the society, but it helps a lot with works. Phil Redmond, the famous English television producer, graduated with a degree in social science has used his insight into human awareness to produce many award-winning TV dramas. His dramas usually reflect a wide variety of social topics such as bullying, drug abuse, domestic violence and unemployment.